What is a Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire?

The Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) is a meticulously designed self-assessment instrument to gauge an individual's inherent preference or inclination toward morning or evening activities. This preference, often termed one's chronotype, provides insights into one's natural circadian rhythms. 

The inception of the MEQ can be traced back to 1976 when Horne and Östberg first introduced it to the scientific community. Their objective was to create a tool to deeply understand an individual's natural rhythms, shedding light on periods of peak alertness and their favored times for specific tasks.

Over the subsequent decades, the MEQ has firmly established its reputation in sleep research. It serves as a cornerstone tool, reliably classifying individuals into distinct categories: "morning types," "evening types," or those who fall somewhere in between, often termed intermediate types. But, the implications of these classifications extend far beyond mere labels. They hold profound significance in real-world applications. 

For instance, employers can tailor work schedules to harness maximum productivity by understanding one's chronotype. Individuals can enhance their sleep quality by aligning their sleep schedules with their natural rhythms. Moreover, healthcare professionals can tailor therapeutic interventions for sleep-related disorders, ensuring they are in sync with the patient's chronotype.

In a broader perspective, the MEQ offers more than just a questionnaire; it provides a comprehensive window into our internal biological clock. By aligning our daily activities, work schedules, and even therapeutic interventions with our natural tendencies, as revealed by the MEQ, we can optimize our well-being, productivity, and overall quality of life.

Printable Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire

Access our free Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire PDF here

How does it work?

The Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) offers insights into whether a person leans more towards being a morning or evening individual. The questionnaire comprises 19 thoughtfully designed multiple-choice questions. Each question is structured to capture the essence of one's innate preferences rather than being influenced by external factors like work commitments or societal norms.

The answers are systematically scored upon completion, yielding a cumulative score ranging from 16 to 86. This score acts as a mirror, reflecting the individual's chronotype and thus offering a roadmap to aligning daily activities with their natural rhythms for optimal well-being and productivity.

  1. Initiation: Start by setting aside a quiet moment, ensuring you're free from distractions.
  2. Comprehension: Carefully peruse each question, understanding its essence.
  3. Response Selection: Choose the response that resonates most with your innate habits and tendencies for each question. Remember, it's about your natural inclinations, not imposed routines.
  4. Consistency: While answering, maintain consistency. Ensure your answers reflect your genuine preferences, not influenced by temporary situations or external pressures.
  5. Scoring: After answering all questions, calculate your total score using the designated scoring system. Each answer corresponds to a specific point value.
  6. Interpretation: With your cumulative score in hand, refer to the interpretation guide. This will categorize you as a morning, evening, or somewhere between.
  7. Application: Use the insights gained from the MEQ to make informed decisions about activity schedules, sleep routines, and even therapeutic interventions if needed.

Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire Example (sample)

The Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) delves deep into one's innate preferences, shedding light on optimal activities and rest times. For instance, questions such as "Considering only your own feeling best rhythm, at what time would you get up if you were entirely free to plan your day?" provide insights into an individual's natural waking tendencies. Similarly, by asking, "At what time of the day do you feel you become tired due to the need for sleep?" the MEQ captures the individual's natural winding down period.

Each question is structured with time range options as answers, ensuring the responses are specific and relatable. These time ranges make choosing and facilitating a precise scoring system easier for the respondent. Every selected time range corresponds to a particular score, which, when tallied, reveals the individual's morningness or eveningness inclination.

For a comprehensive understanding and to explore the questionnaire in detail, you can access our Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire PDF, which provides a complete list of questions, answer options, and the associated scoring system, offering a clear picture of how the MEQ functions.

Check out our Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire PDF here for free

When would you use this Questionnaire?

The Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) is a valuable tool in recognizing one's natural sleep-wake pattern can enhance productivity, well-being, and overall health. Here are some scenarios where the MEQ proves to be particularly beneficial:

  1. Sleep Research: Scientists and researchers delving into the intricacies of circadian rhythms find the MEQ indispensable. It aids in categorizing participants in sleep studies, ensuring that the research is tailored to the individual's natural tendencies.
  2. Clinical Settings: For clinicians, therapists, or sleep specialists, the MEQ can be a diagnostic aid when dealing with patients exhibiting sleep disorders. By understanding a patient's chronotype, tailored interventions can be recommended.
  3. Workplace Optimization: In industries that rely on shift work, such as healthcare, aviation, or manufacturing, employers can utilize the MEQ to design optimal work schedules. Aligning work hours with an employee's natural rhythm can boost productivity and reduce fatigue-related errors.
  4. Personal Insight: The MEQ offers a structured approach for individuals keen on understanding their body's natural clock. Whether optimizing study schedules, workout timings, or understanding one's body better, this questionnaire provides valuable insights.
  5. Performance-Oriented Professions: Athletes, performers, or any professionals where peak cognitive or physical performance is crucial can benefit from the MEQ. They can schedule training or events by identifying their peak performance times.

The MEQ is a gateway to understanding the human body's internal clock. Whether you're a professional seeking optimization or simply curious about your sleep-wake pattern, the Morningness Eveningness Test can provide the answers you seek.

What do the results mean?

The Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) provides a numerical score that offers insights into an individual's chronotype, pinpointing whether they are naturally inclined to be more active and alert in the morning or the evening. This score is more than just a number; it reflects one's internal biological clock and can affect daily routines, productivity, and overall well-being.

Here's a breakdown of the scores and their interpretations:

  • 70 and above: Definite Morning Type: Individuals with scores in this range are naturally early birds. They tend to wake up early, feel most energetic in the first half of the day, and prefer to go to bed early. Such individuals might struggle to stay awake and alert during late-night events or shifts.
  • 59-69: Moderate Morning Type: While still leaning towards morning preferences, people in this category have more flexibility in their sleep-wake patterns. They might enjoy the morning's tranquility but can adjust to occasional late nights.
  • 42-58: Neither Type: Falling in the middle of the spectrum, these individuals don't have a strong inclination towards morning or evening. They have the most adaptable sleep-wake patterns, making it easier for them to adjust to varying schedules.
  • 41-31: Moderate Evening Type: These individuals might hit the snooze button a few times in the morning. They tend to feel more energetic and alert in the latter part of the day and might be more productive during the evening hours.
  • 30 and below: Definite Evening Type: Night owls fall into this category. They prefer staying up late, may find it challenging to wake up early, and often feel most active and alert during the evening or even late at night.

Understanding one's MEQ score can be pivotal in making informed decisions about work schedules, study habits, workout timings, and even social activities. It's not about labeling oneself but about harnessing the knowledge to align activities with times when one is naturally at their best.

For a detailed assessment and to determine your chronotype, access our Free Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire.

Research & Evidence

The Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), introduced by Horne and Östberg in 1976, has become a cornerstone in sleep and circadian rhythm research. Its inception was based on the need for a reliable tool to categorize individuals based on their natural sleep-wake preferences without relying on invasive or complex physiological measurements.

Several key points underscore the significance and reliability of the MEQ:

Validation with Physiological Markers

The MEQ's results have been cross-referenced and validated with physiological markers over the years. For instance, studies have shown a strong correlation between MEQ scores and the timing of melatonin secretion, a hormone responsible for regulating sleep. Similarly, core body temperature rhythms, indicative of one's internal biological clock, have also been found to align with MEQ categorizations.

Widespread Application

Beyond academic research, the MEQ has found applications in clinical settings, especially in diagnosing and treating circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Its results help clinicians tailor interventions based on an individual's chronotype, such as light therapy or chronotherapy.

Cross-Cultural Relevance

The MEQ has been adapted and validated across various cultures and populations, emphasizing its universal applicability. This cross-cultural validation ensures the questionnaire remains relevant and accurate across diverse demographic groups.

Evolution with Time

As with any scientific tool, the MEQ has been subject to revisions and refinements based on new research findings. These iterative improvements ensure that the questionnaire remains up-to-date and continues to provide accurate insights.

Commonly asked questions

Who typically requests a Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire Chart?

Sleep researchers, clinicians, and sometimes employers or educators can use the Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire Chart.

When are Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire Charts used?

When studying sleep patterns, diagnosing sleep disorders, or optimizing work/school schedules.

How are Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire Charts used?

Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire Charts are self-administered, with results interpreted by professionals.

How long does a Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire Chart take?

Typically, it takes about 10-15 minutes to complete the Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire Chart.

Why use Carepatron as your MEQ app?

Administering and interpreting the Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) requires a platform that is not only user-friendly but also robust in its features. Carepatron stands out as the premier choice for several reasons:

  1. User-Centric Design: Carepatron's intuitive interface ensures that professionals and users can easily navigate the MEQ. The platform's design prioritizes user experience, ensuring the questionnaire can be filled out smoothly without any hitches.
  2. Data Privacy and Security: In the healthcare domain, the confidentiality and security of data are paramount. Carepatron offers a globally compliant platform, meeting stringent security requirements such as HIPAA, GDPR, and HITRUST. This ensures that all MEQ responses and interpretations remain confidential and protected.
  3. Collaborative Features: Carepatron is built for collaboration. Its features allow professionals to seamlessly share MEQ results and insights with their teams, peers, or clients, fostering better communication and understanding.
  4. Global Reach: With a global user base, Carepatron has tailored its platform to cater to the diverse needs of its community. This global perspective ensures that the platform remains relevant and versatile, regardless of where it's being used.
  5. Comprehensive Suite of Tools: Beyond the MEQ, Carepatron offers a range of tools that complement the questionnaire administration. From electronic patient records and patient portal software to healthcare payment software and medical dictation software, Carepatron provides an all-in-one solution for healthcare professionals.
  6. Dedicated Support: Carepatron's commitment to delivering a beautiful daily experience is evident in its robust support system. Whether it's technical assistance or guidance on best practices, the Carepatron team is always ready to assist.

Carepatron offers a blend of simplicity, security, and sophistication for those seeking a digital solution for the MEQ. Its comprehensive features and commitment to user experience make it the top choice for professionals worldwide.

Clinical documentation software benefit


Horne, J. A., & Östberg, O. (1976). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology, 4(2), 97-110.

Who typically requests a Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire Chart?
Who typically requests a Morningness Eveningness Questionnaire Chart?
Written by
Telita Montales
Telita Montales

Join 10,000+ teams using Carepatron to be more productive

One app for all your healthcare work