Spinal Nerve Diagram

Learn about the anatomy and function of spinal nerves with this comprehensive guide. Download a free Spinal Nerve Diagram and example here.

By Ericka Pingol on Jul 15, 2024.


Fact Checked by RJ Gumban.

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Understanding spinal nerve anatomy

Spinal nerves are an essential part of the nervous system, connecting the brain and spinal cord to various body parts. They consist of sensory fibers that carry information from the body to the brain and motor fibers that send instructions from the brain to muscles and organs.

Each spinal nerve comprises two branches, the dorsal and ventral roots. The dorsal root contains fibers, while the ventral root contains motor fibers. These roots merge to form a single nerve that exits through small openings in the spinal canal called foramina.

There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, each connecting to a specific spinal cord segment. These pairs are divided into eight cervical nerves, 12 thoracic spinal nerves, five lumbar nerves, five sacral nerves, and one coccygeal nerve.

The cervical spine has eight pairs of spinal nerves (C1-C8) that branch to the head, neck, shoulders, and arms.

  • The thoracic spine has 12 pairs of thoracic spinal nerves (T1-T12) branching to the chest and abdomen.
  • The lumbar spine has five pairs of spinal nerves (L1-L5) branching to the lower back and legs.
  • The sacral spine has five pairs of spinal nerves (S1-S5) that branch to the pelvic region and genitalia.
  • The coccyx has one pair of spinal nerves (Coc) branching to the tailbone area.

Which spinal nerves affect which parts of the body?

Each pair of spinal nerves is uniquely named based on its corresponding vertebrae in the spine, reflecting the intricate organization of this complex network. Here are the specifics:

The cervical spine, positioned in the neck region, boasts eight remarkable pairs of spinal nerves. These nerves orchestrate sensation and movement in critical areas such as the neck, shoulders, arms, hands, and even the fingertips. They act as the conduits that enable us to feel and manipulate objects, granting us dexterity and control.

Moving on, the thoracic spine is nestled in the mid-back area. This segment of the spine houses an impressive 12 pairs of spinal nerves. These nerves govern sensation and movement in the chest and abdomen, facilitating vital functions such as breathing, digestion, and the overall coordination of the core musculature.

Finally, the lumbar spine is situated in the lower back region. Here, five pairs of spinal nerves take center stage, overseeing sensation and movement in the hips, legs, and feet. They provide the ability to engage in activities such as walking, running, and maintaining balance, enabling us to navigate the world around us.

Spinal nerve functions

The spinal nerves also serve a crucial role in the functioning of the body's nervous system. As mentioned, they transmit signals between the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (all other parts of the body) (Kaiser & Lugo-Pico, 2023).

Sensory fibers within each spinal nerve relay information from sensory receptors, such as touch, pain, and temperature, to the brain. The motor fibers, on the other hand, carry signals from the brain to muscles and organs, controlling movement and function (Libre Texts, n.d.).

Each spinal nerve is made up of thousands of nerve fibers. These fibers are categorized into four types: sensory (afferent) fibers, motor (efferent) fibers, visceral motor fibers, and special fibers.

  • Sensory (afferent) fibers carry information from the body's sensory receptors to the spinal cord and brain.
  • Motor (efferent) fibers transmit signals from the brain and spinal cord to muscles, causing them to contract and produce movement.
  • Visceral motor fibers control involuntary functions of internal organs, such as digestion and heart rate.
  • Special fibers carry specific types of sensory information, such as vision and hearing.

Common disorders associated with the spinal nerve

As the spinal nerve is responsible for transmitting signals throughout the body, any damage or disorder can significantly affect a person's motor and sensory functions. Some common disorders associated with the spinal nerve include:

Nerve root compression

This occurs when a nerve root is compressed or pinched, typically due to herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or degenerative changes in the spine. This compression manifests symptoms such as pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected area, which can radiate along the path of the affected nerve.


Sciatica is a condition that occurs when the sciatic nerve, which runs from the lower back down the legs, becomes irritated or compressed. This can result in various symptoms, including pain, numbness, and tingling sensations in the lower back, buttocks, and legs.

Cervical radiculopathy

Cervical radiculopathy is a condition that affects the cervical spine (neck) and occurs when a nerve root in this region is compressed or irritated. Various factors, such as herniated discs, bone spurs, or degenerative changes in the spine, can cause this.

Common symptoms of cervical radiculopathy may include neck pain, shooting arm pain, muscle weakness, and tingling sensations. It is essential to seek medical attention and proper diagnosis for appropriate treatment options.

Peripheral neuropathy

This refers to damage or dysfunction of one or more peripheral nerves, often causing numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected areas.

Spinal stenosis

This condition is known as spinal canal narrowing, also called spinal stenosis, which occurs when the space within the spinal canal becomes narrowed. This narrowing can lead to compression and irritation of the spinal nerves, causing a range of symptoms.

These symptoms may include pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected area. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of these symptoms, as proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial for managing this condition effectively.

Herniated disc

A herniated disc, also known as a slipped or ruptured disc, occurs when the soft inner core of a spinal disc pushes through a tear or crack in the tough outer layer. This can result in the disc bulging or even breaking open, leading to pressure on nearby nerves.

The compression of these nerves can cause a range of symptoms, including localized or radiating pain, numbness, tingling, and muscle weakness. It is essential to seek medical attention and appropriate treatment for this condition to alleviate discomfort and prevent further complications.

Keeping the spinal nerve healthy

Maintaining a healthy spinal nerve is essential for overall well-being and prevention of nerve-related issues. Some ways to keep the spine and its nerves in good condition include:

  • Proper posture: Good posture can help reduce pressure on spinal nerves, preventing potential damage.
  • Regular exercise: Staying physically active can improve strength and flexibility in the spine, reducing the risk of nerve injuries.
  • Ergonomic adjustments: Simple adjustments to workstations and daily activities can reduce strain on the spine and nerves, preventing potential damage.
  • Stress management: Chronic stress can lead to muscle tension and increased pressure on spinal nerves. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques such as yoga or meditation can help keep the nerves healthy and functioning correctly.
  • Understanding lumbar nerve pair: Knowledge about the lumbar nerve pair, a critical component of the spinal region, is also beneficial. This nerve pair is crucial in sending signals from the spine to the lower part of the body. Keeping them healthy ensures efficient communication between the brain and the lower body parts.
  • Proper nourishment of nerve cells: Consuming a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals is essential for the health and functionality of nerve cells. Nutrient-dense foods promote nerve cell growth and repair, helping to maintain a healthy nervous system.
  • Protecting the anterior spinal artery: The anterior spinal artery, running along the front of the spine, supplies blood to the spinal cord. To safeguard this artery, avoid intense physical activities that could harm the spine and maintain a healthy blood pressure level through a balanced diet and regular exercise.
  • Regular neurological assessment: Regular neurological assessments can help detect problems related to lumbar nerve pairs, nerve cells, and the anterior spinal artery. Early detection and treatment can prevent severe damage and promote overall spinal health.

Using Carepatron's free diagram in your practice

Carepatron's printable diagram is a valuable tool for healthcare professionals in diagnosing and treating disorders associated with the spinal nerve.

The diagram visually represents the nerve roots, spinal nerves, and their pathways throughout the body. This can aid in identifying the location and extent of damage or compression on a particular spinal nerve. Here's how to utilize the template:

Step 1: Download the free template

Get a free copy of the diagram from Carepatron's app or our resources library. This diagram is available in both digital and printable formats, making it easily accessible for use in your practice.

Step 2: Identify the affected spinal nerve

Using the diagram, locate the affected spinal nerve based on the patient's symptoms and medical history. Make sure also to consider the specific spine region, such as cervical, thoracic, or lumbar.

Step 3: Jot down your findings

Our template has a section for your notes where you can document your observations and findings based on the diagram. This will help you in creating a comprehensive treatment plan for your patient.

Step 4: Discuss with your patient

Carepatron's template also includes a space to share notes with the patient. Use this section to explain your diagnosis and discuss potential treatment options involving the patient in their care.

Step 5: Plan for treatment

Based on the diagnosis and discussion with your patient, create a treatment plan that targets the affected spinal nerve. You can also refer to the diagram for assistance in identifying any other potential nerve involvement.

When can you use this diagram?

You can use this diagram in a variety of situations, such as:

  • Assessing and diagnosing spinal nerve injuries: You can use this diagram to assess and diagnose spinal nerve injuries and identify the specific spinal nerve affected. This can help create a targeted treatment plan for your patient.
  • Educating patients: The diagram is a valuable tool for educating patients about their condition and helping them understand the potential causes of their symptoms. It can also assist in explaining the treatment plan and expected outcomes.
  • Research and study purposes: Our template can also be used for research and study purposes, visually representing the spinal nerves and their connections to other body parts.
  • Comparative analysis: The diagram can be beneficial in performing comparative analyses. You can use it to compare and contrast normal nerve paths and functions with those of a spinal nerve disorder patient.
  • Patient rehabilitation: You can also use this diagram to help patients understand their rehabilitation process and track their progress. It can serve as a visual aid in explaining the affected spinal nerve and its role in movement and sensation.

Diagnosing spinal nerve  injuries and conditions

Detecting spinal nerve injuries and conditions can be complex, as the spinal cord is vital to the nervous system. However, several methods and tools can aid in diagnosing these issues:

  • Computed tomography (CT) scan: A CT scan is a non-invasive medical imaging technique using specialized X-ray equipment to provide highly detailed brain and spinal cord images. By capturing a series of cross-sectional images, a CT scan allows you to identify any abnormalities or potential damage to the spinal nerves.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce high-resolution images of the spine and surrounding tissue. This can help in identifying injuries or disorders affecting the spinal nerves.
  • Electromyogram (EMG): An EMG is a diagnostic tool that measures the electrical activity of muscles and nerves. It can detect any abnormalities in nerve function and help pinpoint the location of nerve damage.
  • Nerve conduction studies (NCS): NCS measures how well nerves can transmit electrical signals. This test can identify if there is any damage or dysfunction in particular spinal nerves.
  • X-rays: X-rays can identify fractures or other bone abnormalities that may compress or damage spinal nerves. They can also provide a general overview of the spine and its alignment.
  • Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) testing: SSEP testing is a diagnostic procedure that evaluates the speed and strength of nerve signals transmitted by sensory fibers.  This non-invasive test is used to assess sensory pathways and contribute to the accurate diagnosis and treatment of various neurological conditions.

Treating spinal nerve injuries and conditions

The treatment for spinal nerve injuries and conditions depends on the severity and location of the issue. Below are some common treatments used to address these problems:

  • Medications: Medications like anti-inflammatories or pain relievers may be prescribed to alleviate symptoms and reduce inflammation in the affected area.
  • Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help improve strength and flexibility in the spine, reducing pressure on spinal nerves. It can also teach proper body mechanics to prevent further injuries.
  • Surgery: In severe cases of spinal nerve damage, surgery may be necessary to remove structures compressing or damaging the nerves. This can include removing herniated discs or bone spurs.
  • Nerve blocks: Nerve blocks involve injecting medication directly into or near the affected spinal nerve to block pain signals and provide relief.


LibreTexts. (n.d.). Function and physiology of the spinal nerves. In Okanagan College: HKIN 110: Human Anatomy I for Kinesiology. https://med.libretexts.org/Courses/Okanagan_College/HKIN_110:_Human_Anatomy_I_for_Kinesiology/03:_The_Nervous_System/3.03:_Spinal_Nerves/3.3F:_Function_and_Physiology_of_the_Spinal_Nerves

Kaiser JT, Lugo-Pico JG. (2023, August 14). Neuroanatomy, Spinal Nerves. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542218/

Which spinal nerves affect which parts of the body?
Which spinal nerves affect which parts of the body?

Commonly asked questions

Which spinal nerves affect which parts of the body?

The spinal nerves send signals between the brain and different areas of the body. Each pair of spinal nerves is named after the corresponding vertebrae in the spine.

The cervical spine has eight pairs of spinal nerves, controlling sensation and movement in the neck, shoulders, arms, hands, and fingers. The thoracic spine has 12 pairs of spinal nerves controlling sensation and movement in the chest and abdomen.

The lumbar spine has five pairs of spinal nerves controlling sensation and movement in the hips, legs, and feet.

How do spinal nerves branch off?

Spinal nerves branch off into smaller nerves as they exit the spinal cord through tiny openings in the spinal canal called intervertebral foramina. These branches then continue to branch off even further to supply specific areas of the body with nerve fibers.

What nerves are affected by T12 and L1?

The T12 spinal nerve affects the abdominal muscles, while the L1 spinal nerve affects the skin and muscles in the upper thigh. These nerves are also involved in controlling sensation and movement in these areas.

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