Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan

Have this invaluable nursing care plan on hand when analyzing, interpreting, and creating interventions for myocardial infarction events. Click here to download your free template.

By Harriet Murray on Jul 05, 2024.

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Fact Checked by Ericka Pingol.

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What is a Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan Template?

A Myocardial Infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is a critical medical condition resulting from the sudden interruption of blood flow to a part of the heart muscle. This interruption typically occurs due to the blockage of a coronary artery, often caused by the formation of a blood clot on a ruptured or damaged plaque in the artery. The lack of blood flow deprives the affected portion of the heart of oxygen and nutrients, leading to irreversible damage to the heart muscle.

Standing as the foremost cause of death in the United States and Western Europe, cardiovascular diseases typically stem from cardiac injury or complications related to myocardial infarction (MI). Mortality rates soar when treatment is delayed, with nearly half of sudden MI-related deaths occurring before hospitalization and within an hour of symptom onset. 

Prompt and vigorous treatment significantly improves the prognosis. MI can be categorized into distinct types based on variances in pathology, clinical presentation, and prognosis, each warranting unique treatment approaches. 

Type 1 MI arises from atherothrombotic coronary artery disease, typically triggered by the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Type 2 MI involves ischemic myocardial injury due to an imbalance between oxygen supply and demand. 

Meanwhile, type 3 MI is suspected when there's a high likelihood of acute myocardial ischemia, even in the absence of cardiac biomarker evidence, especially in patients presenting with typical MI symptoms who die before blood samples can be obtained for biomarker analysis.

Through a nursing care plan, managing acute MI primarily aims to limit myocardial damage, preserve cardiac function, and prevent complications. Achieving these goals involves interventions to restore blood flow in the coronary arteries. 

Strategies to minimize damage revolve around reducing oxygen demand, and augmenting oxygen supply through medications, oxygen therapy, and rest. Pain relief and improvements in electrocardiogram (ECG) readings signal a balanced oxygen supply and demand, potentially indicating reperfusion. Confirmation of blood flow through an open vessel in the catheterization lab serves as evidence of successful reperfusion.

Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan Template

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Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan Example

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How does it work?

Step One: Gather your resources

Myocardial infarction nursing care plans are a valuable resource and essential to keep on hand. Make sure that you have a copy of the free printable PDF when the need arises by either clicking the “Download Template” or “Use Template” button or by searching “myocardial infarction nursing care plan” on Carepatron’s template library’s search bar on the website or app.

Step Two: Collate essential information

Once the patient has been diagnosed and assessed for myocardial infarction, utilizing this nursing care plan template to ensure all goals of care are met is seamless. The document is easily accessible to relevant parties via Carepatron's centralized workspace. 

Assessment, symptom management, and interventions can be collated within the single care plan and safely stored on a single database. The care plan allows for individualized treatment options and acts as a scaffolding to ensure goals of care are met, and the next steps are recorded for future reference or for distribution to other healthcare specialists who are part of the patient's care team. 

Step Three: Store the chart securely

After reviewing the myocardial infarction nursing care plan and creating a viable and individualized plan for the patient, you need to secure the plan so that access is only granted to relevant parties. 

Ensure this through Carepatrons HIPAA-compliant free patient records software. Here, all relevant medical records can be safely stored and collated for ease and security.

Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan example (sample)

Eager to utilize this essential care planning tool? Acquire a free, downloadable, and printable myocardial infarction nursing care plan template PDF that comes pre-filled with fictional data to help you confidently track your patient's needs or act as an educational tool. 

Our crafted sample template is designed to assist you in efficiently utilizing the chart and evaluating the goals of care for patients who have had a cardiac injury. It includes dedicated sections for evaluation, interventions, and symptom tracking. 

Download this Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan example: 

Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan example (sample)

When would you use this template?

These care plans are comprehensive and tailored to each patient's specific needs, considering their medical history, risk factors, current condition, and individual circumstances. They're dynamic documents that are regularly reassessed and adjusted based on the patient's progress and changing health status. 

A myocardial infarction nursing care plan can be utilized  in several scenarios:

Hospital setting

After a patient is admitted due to a myocardial infarction, a care plan is developed to outline the nursing interventions, monitoring, and treatments necessary during their hospital stay. This plan aims to stabilize the patient's condition, manage symptoms, prevent complications, and facilitate recovery.

Post-discharge care

Once a patient is discharged following a myocardial infarction, a care plan helps guide the ongoing care and management of the patient at home. It includes medication management, lifestyle modifications, follow-up appointments, and education on signs and symptoms to watch for.

Rehabilitation programs

For individuals who have had a myocardial infarction, rehabilitation programs play a crucial role in recovery. Nursing care plans are utilized within these programs to structure exercise regimens, dietary guidance, and lifestyle changes.

Long-term care

In cases where patients have persistent cardiac issues or are at higher risk of future cardiovascular events, a care plan supports ongoing monitoring, risk factors management, and overall cardiac health maintenance.

What do the results mean?

The nursing assessment for myocardial infarction encompasses both subjective and objective data gathering.

Subjective data

  • General symptoms: Chest/back/shoulder/jaw pain, palpitations, dyspnea, fatigue, sweating, nausea, syncope, dizziness.
  • Chest pain description: Various aspects of chest pain including tightness, squeezing, heaviness, burning, location, duration, triggers, and associated symptoms.
  • Risk factors: Identifying both non-modifiable (age, gender, family history) and modifiable (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, obesity, inactivity, diet, stress, alcohol, lack of sleep) risk factors.
  • Medication review: Understanding the patient's current medications, potential side effects, and their relation to heart health.
  • Emotional causes: Exploring anginophobia and underlying anxiety disorders that might mimic or exacerbate MI symptoms.

Objective data

  • ABCs prioritization: Immediate attention to airway, breathing, and circulation, with CPR if necessary.
  • Systemic assessment: Comprehensive evaluation including cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, integumentary, and central nervous system (CNS) assessment for symptoms like chest pain, arrhythmias, dyspnea, nausea, pain, and changes in mental status.
  • Risk calculation: Utilization of the ASCVD risk score to objectively assess the 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease by considering various factors like age, gender, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, diabetes, and smoking.

Potential Interventions 

Restore blood perfusion

  • Assist in reperfusion therapy, such as PCI or fibrinolytic therapy.
  • Unblock arteries through procedures like coronary angioplasty, stent placement, or bypass surgery. Administer dual antiplatelet treatment and blood thinning agents cautiously as prescribed. Use thrombolytics or fibrinolytics to dissolve blood clots obstructing blood flow.

Relieve pain

  • Provide analgesics like morphine for pain relief.Administer supplemental oxygen to increase cardiac tissue oxygenation. Use nitroglycerin for vasodilation to alleviate chest pain.

Manage symptoms

  • Set and maintain blood pressure within acceptable limits with antihypertensive medications.
  • Use beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and nitrates to control blood pressure and symptoms.
  • Prescribe statins to lower LDL cholesterol levels and stabilize atherosclerotic plaques. Manage blood glucose levels to prevent hyperglycemia with glucose-lowering treatments.

Cardiac rehabilitation

  • Adhere to the cardiac rehab plan post-MI or surgery to reduce complications and readmissions. Continue rehab at home or in a community healthcare facility to improve exercise capacity and overall well-being.

Prevent MI complications

  • Encourage regular exercise and healthy weight maintenance. Educate patients on their treatment regimen and lifestyle changes.
  • Promote stress reduction techniques and control underlying conditions like diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. 
  • Emphasize regular follow-up visits, CPR training for caregivers, and knowing when to seek immediate medical attention.

Post-MI lifestyle changes

  • Encourage a heart-healthy diet, smoking cessation, stress management, limited alcohol intake, and regular physical activity. 
  • Advise on resuming sexual activity based on the patient's physical capability. Suggest medical alert identification for emergency responders to recognize the patient's risk.

Research & evidence

One of the leading causes of death in the developed world, acute myocardial infarction, originates from a decreased supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, culminating in cardiac ischemia. Accounting for over one million deaths in the U.S. annually, this irreversible damage to the heart requires careful and consistent monitoring (Nascimento et al., 2018). 

Delving into risk factors, fatal occurrences in approximately 70% of AMI cases are attributed to atherosclerotic plaque occlusion, making atherosclerosis the predominant driver of this cardiac event's onset. In efforts to prevent AMI, considerable focus is directed toward mitigating risk factors associated with atherosclerotic disease. 

The basis of these preventive efforts revolves around managing modifiable risk factors, which wield substantial influence, accounting for 90% of men and 94% of women experiencing myocardial infarctions. These modifiable factors encompass an array of lifestyle and health elements, including cigarette smoking, exercise patterns, hypertension, obesity, cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. (Berg et al., 2018; Deng et al., 2018). 

A significant influence on an individual's susceptibility to atherosclerotic disease and subsequent AMI events lies in age, sex, and family history (Deng et al., 2018). Recognizing the interplay between modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors is imperative in creating comprehensive strategies and nursing care plans for MI prevention and management, acknowledging both the avenues for intervention and the inherent limitations in altering certain predisposing factors.

Why use Carepatron as Your Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan app?

Selecting Carepatron as your preferred application for creating myocardial infarction nursing care plans offers numerous advantages for healthcare practitioners.

Carepatron provides a centralized workspace, allowing you to manage clinical documents and electronic patient records, set patient appointment reminders, and handle medical billing seamlessly and efficiently within the platform, eliminating the need for additional software downloads. 

This integrated and comprehensive approach simplifies and streamlines processes and tasks related to internal bleeding management, care, and various other activities, giving you peace of mind and allowing you to focus most of your time, attention, and effort on patient care.

Carepatron is dedicated to offering a highly efficient and productive platform for thousands of healthcare professionals, allowing you to customize tools and workflows to meet your unique needs. Additionally, it empowers practitioners and patients to manage administrative tasks such as service booking and completing paperwork. The easy sharing of essential documents and data through the app ensures a top-quality customer experience.

We strongly believe in providing radical accessibility, making our app available on any device you have at your disposal. Our portable medical dictation software simplifies clinical note-making and updates, ensuring an effortless process. With great accessibility comes great responsibility, and we prioritize the security of all notes, clinical records, results, and practitioner data by complying with global security requirements, including HIPAA, GDPR, and HITRUST.

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References

Berg, D. D., Wiviott, S. D., Braunwald, E., Guo, J., Im, K., Kashani, A., Gibson, C. M., Cannon, C. P., Morrow, D. A., Bhatt, D. L., Mega, J. L., O’Donoghue, M. L., Antman, E. M., Newby, L. K., Sabatine, M. S., & Giugliano, R. P. (2018). Modes and timing of death in 66 252 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes enrolled in 14 TIMI trials. European Heart Journal, 39(42), 3810–3820. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy556 

Deng, D., Liu, L., Xu, G., Gan, J., Shen, Y., Shi, Y., Zhu, R., & Lin, Y. (2018). Epidemiology and Serum Metabolic Characteristics of Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in Chest Pain Centers. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 47(7), 1017–1029. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30182001/ 

Nascimento, B. R., Brant, L. C. C., Marino, B. C. A., Passaglia, L. G., & Ribeiro, A. L. P. (2018). Implementing myocardial infarction systems of care in low/middle-income countries. Heart, 105(1), 20–26. https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2018-313398

How do you create a Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan template?
How do you create a Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan template?

Commonly asked questions

How do you create a Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan template?

To create a comprehensive nursing care plan for cardiac management, simply create a customized plan from the scaffolding provided by Carepatron and cater to the patient's needs through the key aspects of assessment, diagnosis, planning, intervention, and evaluation. 

When are Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan Templates used?

These valuable plan templates can be used at any point of the treatment journey for a patient who had myocardial infarction to track, monitor, and plan all interventions both by healthcare professionals and the patient themselves. 

How are the Myocardial Infarction Nursing Care Plan Templates used?

Myocardial infarction nursing care plan templates are used as a planning tool for efficient and confident care delivery. They are designed to be customized to meet the individual patient's needs.

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