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Autoimmune Disease Symptom Checklist

Download Carepatron's free PDF checklist to identify symptoms of autoimmune diseases.

By Wynona Jugueta on Apr 08, 2024.

Fact Checked by Ericka Pingol.

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What are autoimmune diseases?

Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders characterized by the immune system mistakenly attacking healthy cells in the body. Normally, the immune system acts as the body's defense mechanism, protecting against harmful invaders like viruses and bacteria. However, in individuals with autoimmune diseases, the immune system malfunctions and targets its tissues, causing inflammation and damage.

Rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis are many autoimmune diseases that can affect individuals. These conditions vary widely in their symptoms and severity, but they all share the common feature of the immune system attacking healthy tissues.

The exact cause of an autoimmune disease is not fully understood, but a combination of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors is believed to play a role in their development. While some autoimmune diseases primarily affect specific organs or tissues, others can have systemic effects, impacting multiple body parts.

Recognizing the symptoms of an autoimmune disease is crucial for early diagnosis and management. Common autoimmune disease symptoms include fatigue, joint pain, muscle weakness, and skin rashes. However, the symptoms can vary widely depending on the condition and the affected organs.

Printable Autoimmune Disease Symptom Checklist

Download this Autoimmune Disease Symptom Checklist that compiles common symptoms associated with autoimmune diseases, helping individuals recognize patterns and changes in their health that may warrant further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Common autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune diseases encompass a wide range of conditions where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. Here are five examples of autoimmune diseases:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the joints, causing pain, stiffness, and swelling. It can also affect other organs and systems in the body, leading to complications such as cardiovascular disease and lung inflammation. RA occurs when the immune system attacks the synovium, the lining of the membranes surrounding the joints, resulting in inflammation and joint damage.


Lupus, or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is a systemic autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs and systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, and cardiovascular system. Common symptoms of lupus include fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes (such as the characteristic butterfly rash on the face), and kidney inflammation.

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. In MS, the immune system attacks the protective myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibers, disrupting nerve signaling and communication. This results in many symptoms, including fatigue, muscle weakness, balance problems, and vision disturbances.

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by destroying insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Without sufficient insulin, glucose cannot enter cells for energy, leading to high blood sugar levels. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, and unexplained weight loss. Type 1 diabetes typically develops in childhood or adolescence but can occur at any age.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid gland, leading to inflammation and damage. It is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Symptoms of Hashimoto's thyroiditis include fatigue, weight gain, constipation, dry skin, and hair loss. Over time, untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis can lead to complications such as goiter and thyroid nodules.

Symptoms of autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune diseases can manifest in various ways, often presenting symptoms that may overlap with other conditions. Recognizing these common symptoms is crucial for early detection and management. Some of the autoimmune disease symptoms and indicators include:

  • Joint pain: Persistent joint pain and swelling, often accompanied by stiffness, are common symptoms of many disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.
  • Muscle weakness: The weakness and muscle fatigue can occur in an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular system, such as myasthenia gravis.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Conditions like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which fall under the umbrella of an autoimmune disorder, can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
  • Nervous system symptoms: Autoimmune disorders like Guillain-Barré syndrome and autoimmune encephalitis can lead to various neurological symptoms, such as tingling sensations, muscle spasms, and cognitive impairment.

Autoimmune diseases causes

The development of autoimmune diseases is a complex process influenced by various factors. While the exact cause is not fully understood, several factors may contribute to their onset. These include:

  • Genetic factors: A family history of autoimmune diseases can increase the likelihood of developing similar conditions, suggesting a genetic predisposition to many autoimmune disorders.
  • Environmental triggers: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as infections, toxins, or stress, may trigger autoimmune responses in susceptible individuals, potentially leading to the onset of common autoimmune diseases.
  • Hormonal imbalances: Fluctuations in hormone levels, particularly estrogen, may play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases, as evidenced by the higher prevalence of these conditions in women compared to men.
  • Dysregulated immune response: Dysfunction in the immune system, where it mistakenly identifies healthy tissues as foreign invaders, can lead to common autoimmune diseases. This abnormal immune response results in the immune system attacking and damaging the body's own cells and tissues.
  • Specific autoimmune disorder: Certain autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease, psoriatic arthritis, and Graves' disease (an autoimmune disorder characterized by too much thyroid hormone production), have distinct triggers or underlying mechanisms that contribute to their development.
  • Neurological involvement: In some cases, autoimmune diseases can affect the nervous system, leading to conditions like multiple sclerosis (MS) where the immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord.

What is an Autoimmune Disease Symptom Checklist?

An autoimmune disease symptom checklist is a valuable tool for individuals to monitor and track potential signs of autoimmune disorders. These checklists compile common symptoms associated with autoimmune diseases, helping individuals recognize patterns and changes in their health that may warrant further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

A typical autoimmune disease symptom checklist includes a range of symptoms commonly observed in various autoimmune conditions. These may encompass manifestations such as joint pain and swelling, fatigue, muscle weakness, skin rashes, gastrointestinal issues like abdominal pain or diarrhea, and neurological symptoms like numbness or tingling sensations.

Regularly reviewing and updating an autoimmune disease symptom checklist can aid in early detection and diagnosis, especially for rare autoimmune diseases with subtle or overlapping symptoms. By promptly identifying potential signs of autoimmune disorders, individuals can seek timely medical evaluation and intervention, potentially improving outcomes and quality of life.

What are the benefits of using this checklist?

Using the Carepatron autoimmune disease symptom checklist offers several valuable benefits for individuals managing autoimmune conditions:

Early detection and intervention

Regular monitoring of symptoms enables early detection of changes or exacerbations, allowing for prompt intervention and treatment adjustment. Early intervention can help prevent disease progression and minimize the risk of complications associated with autoimmune conditions.

Improved symptom management

By systematically tracking symptoms, individuals can better understand their condition's patterns and triggers. This insight facilitates more effective symptom management strategies, such as medication adjustments, lifestyle modifications, or stress management techniques, to enhance overall quality of life.

Enhanced communication with healthcare providers

The checklist is a valuable communication tool between individuals and their healthcare providers. By documenting symptom fluctuations and treatment responses, users can provide accurate and detailed information to their healthcare team, fostering more informed discussions and collaborative decision-making during appointments.

Personalized treatment planning

Data collected through the checklist allows for personalized treatment planning tailored to the individual's unique symptom profile and disease progression. Healthcare providers can use this information to tailor treatment strategies, optimize medication regimens, and address specific symptom concerns, leading to better therapeutic outcomes.

Empowerment and engagement

Using the checklist empowers individuals to take an active role in managing their health and autoimmune condition. By actively participating in symptom tracking and management, individuals gain control over their health outcomes, fostering greater engagement in self-care activities and adherence to treatment recommendations.

Long-term health monitoring

The checklist supports long-term health monitoring by facilitating ongoing symptom tracking and trend analysis. This longitudinal approach allows individuals and healthcare providers to monitor disease progression, identify potential complications, and adjust treatment goals as needed to maintain optimal health outcomes.

How are autoimmune diseases diagnosed?

Diagnosing autoimmune diseases can be complex and often involves a combination of medical history review, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Here's how medical practitioners and doctors typically diagnose autoimmune diseases:

Medical history review

Doctors begin by conducting a comprehensive medical history review, which includes asking the patient about their symptoms, family history of autoimmune diseases, past medical conditions, medications, and any recent infections or environmental exposures that may be relevant to the development of autoimmune diseases.

Physical examination

A thorough physical examination is performed to assess for signs and symptoms indicative of autoimmune diseases. This may involve examining the joints for swelling and tenderness, assessing skin lesions or rashes, checking for enlarged lymph nodes, and evaluating other organs or systems potentially affected by autoimmune conditions.

Laboratory tests

Laboratory tests are crucial in diagnosing autoimmune diseases by detecting specific antibodies, proteins, or other markers indicative of immune system dysfunction or tissue damage.

Imaging studies

In some cases, imaging studies such as X-rays, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to visualize internal organs or structures affected by autoimmune diseases. These imaging studies can help identify structural abnormalities, assess disease progression, and guide treatment planning.


A tissue biopsy may be necessary to confirm a diagnosis or evaluate the extent of tissue damage in certain autoimmune diseases. During a biopsy, a small sample of tissue is obtained from the affected organ or tissue and examined under a microscope for signs of inflammation, damage, or abnormal cellular changes.

Specialist consultation

Depending on the suspected autoimmune disease and its presentation, doctors may refer patients to specialists such as rheumatologists, endocrinologists, dermatologists, or gastroenterologists for further evaluation and management. Specialist consultation may involve additional testing, expert interpretation of results, and multidisciplinary care coordination.

Autoimmune disease treatments

While autoimmune diseases cannot typically be cured, they can often be managed effectively with appropriate treatment strategies. Here are common approaches to treating autoimmune diseases:


There are three types of medications for autoimmune diseases: immunosuppressants, DMARDs, and biologics. Common immunosuppressants include corticosteroids, methotrexate, and azathioprine. DMARDs are often used to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Lastly, biologic medications are a type of DMARD that target specific immune system components involved in autoimmune diseases.

Anti-inflammatory medications

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs help relieve pain and reduce inflammation in autoimmune diseases affecting the joints, muscles, or other tissues. Examples include ibuprofen and naproxen.

Lifestyle modifications

Some individuals find that certain dietary changes, such as following an anti-inflammatory diet or avoiding trigger foods, can help manage symptoms of autoimmune diseases. Regular physical activity can help improve joint flexibility, muscle strength, and overall well-being in individuals with autoimmune diseases.

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How does an autoimmune disease make you feel?
How does an autoimmune disease make you feel?

Commonly asked questions

How does an autoimmune disease make you feel?

Autoimmune diseases can cause various symptoms, leaving individuals feeling exhausted, achy, and generally unwell. Symptoms may include fatigue, joint pain, muscle aches, skin rashes, gastrointestinal discomfort, and systemic symptoms such as fever and weight loss.

What is the most common autoimmune disease?

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most prevalent autoimmune diseases, affecting approximately 1.3 million adults in the United States. RA is characterized by chronic joint inflammation, pain, stiffness, and progressive damage to cartilage and bone. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing RA and minimizing joint damage and disability.

How do I know what autoimmune disease I have?

Diagnosing an autoimmune disease requires evaluation by a healthcare professional. Diagnosis typically involves a thorough medical history review, physical examination, and various laboratory tests, including blood tests to detect specific autoimmune markers or antibodies. Imaging studies may also be conducted to assess organ damage or inflammation.

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